cantonese phonology wikipedia

Socioeconomic statuses are also a factor as well. Spoken Chinese has numerous regional and local varieties, many of which are mutually unintelligible. Chinese is the third most widely spoken non-English language in the United States when both Cantonese and Mandarin are combined, behind Spanish and French. Historically, finals that end in a stop consonant were considered as "checked tones" and treated separately by diachronic convention, identifying Cantonese with nine tones (九声六调). Most of these are rare outside their native areas, though they may be spoken outside of China. While a slight majority of ethnic Chinese from Indochina speak Teochew at home, knowledge of Cantonese is prevalent due to its historic prestige status in the region and is used for commercial and community purposes between the different Chinese variety groups. It is also the dominant and co-official language of Hong Kong and Macau. Romanization was considered both a tool to help new missionaries learn the variety more easily and a quick route for the unlettered to achieve gospel literacy. The most notable difference between Hong Kong and Guangzhou pronunciation is the substitution of the liquid nasal (/l/) for the nasal initial (/n/) in many words. Some effort has been undertaken to promote Jyutping, but the success of its proliferation within the region has yet to be examined. [71] An example of this is manifested in the word for you (你), pronounced as néih in Guangzhou and as léih in Hong Kong. [18] Over half of the ethnic Chinese population in Vietnam speaks Cantonese as a native language and the variety also serves as a lingua franca between the different Chinese dialect groups. [56][57] Additionally, a distinct classical literature was developed in Cantonese, with Middle Chinese texts sounding more similar to modern Cantonese than other present-day Chinese varieties, including Mandarin. However, it includes extra characters as well as characters with different meanings from written vernacular Chinese due to the presence of words that either do not exist in standard Chinese or correspond with spoken Cantonese. This can be exemplified in the elimination of the contrast of sounds between 吳 (Ng, a surname) (ng4/ǹgh in Guangzhou pronunciation) and 唔 (not) (m4/m̀h in Guangzhou pronunciation). As a result, Mandarin is becoming more common among the Chinese American community. In Malaysia, Cantonese is widely spoken amongst the Malaysian Chinese community in the capital city of Kuala Lumpur[20] and the surrounding areas in the Klang Valley (Petaling Jaya, Ampang, Cheras, Selayang, Sungai Buloh, Puchong, Shah Alam, Kajang, Bangi, and Subang Jaya). Many artists from the Mainland and Taiwan have learned Cantonese to break into the market. Educated speakers often stick to the standard pronunciation but can exemplify the merged pronunciation in casual speech. La ĉi-suba teksto estas aÅ­tomata traduko de la artikolo Cantonese phonology article en la angla Vikipedio, farita per la sistemo GramTrans on 2017-08-12 03:43:31. Since a 1909 Qing dynasty decree, China has promoted Mandarin for use in education, the media, and official communications. Follow @ChineseLinks on Twitter, to get notified about new resources!. The newly emerged Little Fuzhou eastern portion of Manhattan's Chinatown and Brooklyn's main large Chinatown in and around Sunset Park are mostly populated by Fuzhounese speakers, who often speak Mandarin as well. [13][14] The permitted usage of Cantonese in mainland China is largely a countermeasure against Hong Kong's influence, as the autonomous territory has the right to freedom of the press and speech and its Cantonese-language media have a substantial exposure and following in Guangdong. Less prevalent, but still notable differences found among a number of Hong Kong speakers include: Cantonese vowels tend to be traced further back to Middle Chinese than their Mandarin analogues, such as M. /aɪ/ vs. C. /ɔːi/; M. /i/ vs. C. /ɐi/; M. /ɤ/ vs. C. /ɔː/; M. /ɑʊ/ vs. C. /ou/ etc. Common terms and phrases. Among the Chinese community in France, Cantonese is spoken by immigrants who fled the former French Indochina (Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos) following the conflicts and communist takeovers in the region during the 1970s. Cantonese is spoken by a little over 15% of Chinese households in Singapore. Cantonese is the predominant Chinese variety spoken in Hong Kong and Macau. Their romanization system embodied the phonological system in a local dialect rhyme dictionary, the Fenyun cuoyao, which was widely used and easily available at the time and is still available today. Hong Kong Macau Language codes; ISO 639-3: yue (superset for all Yue dialects): Glottolog: cant1236: Linguasphere: 79-AAA-ma: This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Is there research on this? Diacritics were used only for marking tones. ), and the highly of­fe… While older Taiwanese immigrants have learned Cantonese to foster integration within the traditional Chinese American populations, more recent arrivals from the Mainland continue to use Mandarin exclusively. Furthermore, the system of Macau differs slightly from Hong Kong's in that the spellings are influenced by the Portuguese language due to colonial history. [17] Additionally, Cantonese media and popular culture from Hong Kong is popular throughout the region. During the Southern Song period, Guangzhou became the cultural center of the region. Phonology is a branch of linguistics that studies how languages or dialects systematically organize their sounds (or signs, in sign languages). Cantonese romanization systems are based on the accent of Canton and Hong Kong, and have helped define the concept of Standard Cantonese. [62] The proclamation of Mandarin as the official national language, however, was not fully accepted by the Cantonese authorities in the early 20th century, who argued for the "regional uniqueness" of their own local language and commercial importance of the region. In particular, some Chinese Americans (including American-born Chinese) of Cantonese background emphasise their non-Mainland origins (e.g. Cantonese drama series on terrestrial TV channels are instead dubbed in Mandarin and broadcast without the original Cantonese audio and soundtrack. Sabak Bernam located in the northern part of Selangor state and also in the state of Perak, especially in the state capital city of Ipoh and its surrounding towns of Gopeng, Batu Gajah, and Kampar of the Kinta Valley region plus the towns of Tapah and Bidor in the southern part of the Perak state, and also widely spoken in the eastern Sabahan town of Sandakan as well as the towns of Kuantan, Raub, Bentong, and Mentakab in Pahang state, and they are also found in other areas such as Sarikei, Sarawak, and Mersing, Johor. [63] Unlike other non-Mandarin Chinese varieties, Cantonese persists in a few state television and radio broadcasts today. In contrast with Mandarin-speaking areas of China, Cantonese romanization systems are excluded in the education systems of both Hong Kong and the Guangdong province. In the 2011 census, the Australian Bureau of Statistics listed 336,410 and 263,673 speakers of Mandarin and Cantonese, respectively. Hong Kong Cantonese has some minor variations in phonology, but is largely identical to standard Guangzhou Cantonese. In this article, "Cantonese" is used for Cantonese proper. Differences between the three main standards are in bold. Click one or more tags to show relevant resources. In these areas, public discourse takes place almost exclusively in Cantonese, making it the only variety of Chinese other than Mandarin to be used as an official language in the world. [22][23], Cantonese spoken in Malaysia and Singapore often exhibits influences from Malay and other Chinese varieties spoken in the country, such as Hokkien and Teochew. However, due to the rapid gentrification of Manhattan's Chinatown and with NYC's Cantonese and Fuzhou populations now increasingly shifting to other Chinese enclaves in the Outer Boroughs of NYC such as Brooklyn and Queens, but most mainly in Brooklyn's newer Chinatowns, the Cantonese speaking population in NYC are now increasingly becoming more mainly concentrated into Brooklyn's neighborhoods of Bensonhurst and Homecrest, also known as Bensonhurst's Little Hong Kong/Guangdong and Homecrest's Little Hong Kong/Guangdong while the Fuzhou population of NYC are increasingly becoming more mainly concentrated into Brooklyn's neighborhood of Sunset Park, also known as Little Fuzhou, Brooklyn, which is now increasingly resulting in NYC's growing Cantonese and Fuzhou enclaves to become more increasingly distanced and isolated away from each other including much more isolated away from other Chinese enclaves in the NYC borough of Queens that have more Mandarin and other various diverse Chinese dialect speakers. Chinese-language schools in Thailand have also traditionally been conducted in Cantonese. The romanization advocated by the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong (LSHK) is called Jyutping. This has contributed to a segregation of communities based on linguistic cleavage. Elijah Coleman Bridgman and Samuel Wells Williams in their "Chinese Chrestomathy in the Canton Dialect" (1841) were the progenitors of a long-lived lineage of related romanizations with minor variations embodied in the works of James Dyer Ball, Ernst Johann Eitel, and Immanuel Gottlieb Genăhr (1910). Although Wong also derived a romanization scheme, also known as the S. L. Wong system, it is not widely used as his transcription scheme. The Cantonese and Fuzhounese enclaves in New York City are more working class. I've sometimes seen scholars suggesting the existence of such analyses, but so far I've failed to find any. Cantonese has some substrate influence from Kra–Dai languages due to the historic proximity of speakers from both linguistic groups.[79]. ISBN: 978-0-521-65236-0. A history of chinese film production may add depth, or even differences that occur with films from 1993 and 2019. [50] Later Chinese immigrants came from Hong Kong in two waves, first in the late 1960s to mid 1970s, and again in the 1980s to late 1990s on fears arising from the impending handover to the People's Republic of China. Lam 林, Chan 陳). Modern Cantonese phonology Robert S. Bauer, Paul K. Benedict Snippet view - 1997. Not sure if anyone else realizes this, but when a Cantonese speaker pronounces words quickly the final stops (-p, -t, -k) often becomes assimilated to the next consonant, especially if the next consonant is a plosive (or stop consonant). Cantonese is also widely spoken amongst Overseas Chinese in Southeast Asia (most notably in Vietnam and Malaysia, as well as in Singapore and Cambodia to a lesser extent) and throughout the Western world. Hacking Chinese Resources. Cantonese is the most common Chinese variety spoken among Chinese Canadians. In colloquial or hastened speech this becomes jap:un (where the final -t assimilates to p, and the resulting p is geminated). Their close association is best evidenced by the very fact that all stop sounds come from nasal sounds. [64] Additionally, there are reports of students being punished for speaking other Chinese languages at school, resulting in a reluctance of younger children to communicate in their native languages, including Cantonese. [29] Chinese-language schools in Cambodia are conducted in both Cantonese and Mandarin, but schools may be conducted exclusively in one Chinese variant or the other. However, more recent immigrants are arriving from the rest of mainland China and Taiwan and most often speak Standard Mandarin (Putonghua) as their native language,[37][38] although some may also speak their native local variety, such as Shanghainese, Hokkien, Fuzhounese, Hakka, etc. This is a result of teachers being penalized for using other varieties as the teaching language from mid-1990s. [32] Nevertheless, within the Thai Chinese commercial sector, it serves as a common language alongside Teochew or Thai. John Chalmers, in his "English and Cantonese pocket-dictionary" (1859) simplified the marking of tones using the acute accent to mark "rising" tones and the grave to mark "going" tones and no diacritic for "even" tones and marking upper register tones by italics (or underlining in handwritten work). Vs [ iːn ] ) their identity in the nation and Cantonese in. With a Vietnamese accent or a tendency to code-switch between Cantonese and enclaves! 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